The Ogasawara Clan ( 小笠原氏 Ogasawara-shi) was a samurai clan that descended from the Seiwa Genji .
The Ogasawara served as Shugos (governors) of Shinano Province in the Kamakura, Muromachi, and Azuchi-Momoyama Periods (c. 1185-1600), and as Daimyō (feudal lords) of territories in Kyūshū during the Edo Period (1600-1867).
At the end of the Sengoku Period (late 16th Century), the clan made opposition to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu . But during the Edo Period, the Ogasawara were classified as fudai (Allied Clan) and were hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa , in contrast to the tozama (Outsider Clan).
Ogasawara Clan History
The Ogasawara clan originated in the 12th century in Shinano Prefecture. They are descended from Takeda Yoshikiyo and therefore from Seiwa Genji. Broadly speaking, there are two genealogical lines of the Ogasawara, the Matsuo and the Fukashi , which identify places in Shinano.
The Matsuo line gave rise to the Ogasawara of Echizen, and the Fukashi line to the Ogasawara of Bunzen .
During the Kamakura, Muromachi periods, the clan controlled Shinano Prefecture, while allied clans controlled Awa, Bizen, Bitchū, Iwami, Mikawa, Tōtōmi, and Mutsu Prefectures.
According to some theories, the Miyoshi Clan and the Mizukami Clan were descendants of the Ogasawara Clan.
The clan developed a series of martial arts schools during this period, known as Ogasawara-Ryu , and contributed to the codification of bushido.
Yoshikiyo's great-grandson, Nagakiyo , was the first to bear the Ogasawara name. The area controlled by his descendants grew to encompass the entire Shinano Prefecture .
Nagakiyo's grandson, Ogawawara Hidemasa (1569-1615), was Ieyasu's vassal, and in 1590, received the Domain of Koga (with income of 20,000 koku ) in Shimōsa Prefecture .
In 1601, Ieyasu transferred Hidemasa to the Domain of Iida (50,000 koku ) in Shinano, and in 1613, he is able to return to the home of his ancestors at Fukashi Castle (80,000 koku ), now known as Matsumoto Castle .
Branches of the Ogasawara Clan
The Ogasawara Clan originated the following Branches:
The main branch of the Ogasawara from the beginning were daimyō in Fukashi, then in 1617, the daimyō were transferred to Akashi Domain (120,000 koku ) in Harima Prefecture. In the years 1632, spanning through 1868, the descendants of this branch of the Ogasawara became Daimyō of Kokura (150,000 koku ) in Buzen Prefecture. With the abolition of the han system the Clan leader became Hakushaku (Count) in the new Kazoku nobility system.
A secondary branch of the Ogasawara were daimyō in Chizuka Domain (10,000 koku ) in Buzen Prefecture. After the Meiji Restoration the Leader of this Branch became Shishaku ("Viscount").
Another secondary branch of the Ogasawara were daimyō in 1617 in Tatsuno Domain in Harima Prefecture , and in 1632, they were transferred to Nakatsu Domain in Buzen Prefecture . Between 1716 and 1868, descendants of this branch remained in Anshi Domain (10,000 koku ) in Harima Prefecture. The Leader of this line became Shishaku ("Viscount").
A third secondary branch received control of Kizuki Domain in Bungo Prefecture in 1632, in 1645 they were transferred to Yoshida Domain in Mikawa Prefecture , in 1697 to Iwatsuki Domain in Musashi Prefecture , in 1711 to Kakegawa Domain in Tōtōmi Prefecture , in 1747 to Tanakura Domain in Mutsu Prefecture . Finally, from the years 1817 to 1868, the descendants of this branch stayed in Karatsu Domain (60,000 koku ) in Hizen Prefecture . The Leader of this line became Shishaku ("Viscount").
A final branch descended from Ogasawara Sadamune who joined Nitta Yoshisada in overthrowing the Hōjō Clan in Kamakura in the 14th Century. This same Sadamune was a general of Ashikaga Takauji . This branch of the Ogasawara were established in 1590 in Honjō Domain in Musashi Prefecture, in 1608 in Koga Domain in Shimōsa Prefecture , in 1619 in Sekiyado Domain in Shimōsa Prefecture, and in 1637 in Takasu Domain in Mino Prefecture. Between 1691 and 1868, they were daimyō in Katsuyama Domain (22,000 koku) in Echizen Province. The Leader of this line became Shishaku ("Viscount").