Emperor Montoku

Emperor Montoku

Emperor Montoku (文徳天皇, Montoku Tennō, 827 - October 7, 858) was the fifty-fifth emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and ruled from 850 until his death. His personal name was Prince Michiyasu.

Emperor Montoku Genealogy

Montoku was the eldest son of Emperor Nimmyō and Empress Fujiwara no Junshi, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu.

Wives and descendants

Emperor Montoku had 30 children, 13 sons (5 imperial princes) and 17 daughters (10 imperial princesses):

Fujiwara no Meishi (Akiko), born 829, daughter of Fujiwara no Yoshifusa and Princess Kiyohime, daughter of Emperor Saga; entered the palace 842; imperial lady (kotai fujin) 858; empress dowager (kotaigo) 864; grand empress dowager (taikotaigo) 882; died 900; of whom he had :

  • fourth son: Prince Korehito, born in 850 (future emperor Seiwa)
  • Princess Gishi, died 879; vestal princess of kamo from 859 to 876
  • Fujiwara no Koshi (Furuko), daughter of Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu; imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Fujiwara no Takakiko, died 858, daughter of Fujiwara no Yoshimi; imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Fujiwara no Nenshi (Toshiko); imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Princess Azumako, imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Fujiwara no Koreko, imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Tachibana no Fusako, daughter of Tachibana no Ujikimi; imperial wife (nyogo)
  • Tachibana no Chushi, daughter of Tachibana no Ujikimi; imperial wife (nyogo)
Ki no Shizuko, died 866, daughter of Ki no Natora; imperial concubine (koi); mother of
  • first son: Prince Koretaka, born in 844, monk in 872; died in 897
  • third son: prince Koreeda, born 848, died 868
  • Princess Tenshi, died 913; vestal princess of Ise from 859 to 876
  • Princess Jutsushi, died 897; vestal princess of Kamo from 857 to 858
  • Princess Chinshi, died 877
Fujiwara no Retsushi, daughter of Fujiwara no Koreo; court lady, mother of:
  • Princess Anshi, died 900; vestal princess of Ise from 850 to 858
  • Princess Akiko, died 881; vestal princess of Kamo from 850 to 857
Shigeno no Okuko, daughter of Shigeno no Sadanushi; court lady, mother of:
  • Prince Korehiko, born 850, died 883
  • Princess Noshi, died 903
  • princess Shoshi, died 871
Fujiwara no Konshi (Imako), daughter of Fujiwara no Sadamori; court lady, mother of:
  • Prince Koretsune, died 904
  • Princess Reishi, died 899
  • Princess Keishi, died 914; vestal princess of Ise from 882 to 884
Shigeno no Mineko, daughter of Shigeno no Sadao; court lady, mother of:
  • Minamoto no Motoari
  • Minamoto no Fuchiko/ Shigeko, died 911
A lady of the Tomo clan, lady of the court, mother of:
  • second son: Prince Yoshiari, born 845; given the name Minamoto; Udaijin (minister of the Right) in 896; died 897, father of:
  • Minamoto Shoshi, married to Fujiwara no Tadahira
  • Minamoto Na, married to prince Sadazumi (son of emperor Seiwa)
A lady of the Fuse clan, lady of the court, mother of:
  • Minamoto no Yukiari, born 854, died 887
  • Minamoto no Tomiari, died 887
A lady of the Tajihi clan, lady of the court, mother of:
  • Minamoto no Tsuneari
A lady of the Kiyohara clan, lady of the court, mother of:
  • Minamoto no Tokiari
  • Minamoto no Noriari
A lady of the Sugawara clan, lady of the court, mother of:
  • Minamoto no Sadaari
  • Minamoto no Tomiko
Of unknown mothers: 5 princesses who received the name of Minamoto:
  • Minamoto no Hyoshi
  • Minamoto no Kenshi
  • Minamoto no Okuko
  • Minamoto no Retsushi
  • Minamoto no Seishi, married to her half brother emperor Seiwa

Biography of Emperor Montoku

After being named crown prince in 842 in place of a son of emperor Junna following a political intrigue orchestrated by his uncle Fujiwara no Yoshifusa and his father, Montoku succeeded the latter at his death in 850.

During his reign he suppressed two insurrections, first among the Ezo of Mutsu province in 855, then among the population of Tsushima island two years later.

The following year, in 858, Montoku died and his son Prince Korehito ascended the throne as Emperor Seiwa.

Kugyō (公卿)

  • Emperor Montoku 文徳天皇 (r. 850-858)-- kugyō of Montoku-tennō [archive]
  • Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Yoshifusa (藤原良房), 857-872
  • Sadaijin, Minamoto no Tokiwa (源常), 844-854
  • Sadaijin, Minamoto no Makoto (源信), 857-868)
  • Udaijin, Fujiwara no Yoshifusa (藤原良房), 848-857
  • Udaijin, Fujiwara no Yoshisuke (藤原良相), 857-867)