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Emperor Go-Hanazono (後花園天皇, Go-Hanazono Tennō, July 10, 1419 - January 18, 1471) was the 102nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and ruled from September 7, 1428 to August 21, 1464.
His personal name was Hikohito (彦仁). His posthumous name was given to him in memory of Emperor Hanazono (the prefix Go-, 後, can be translated as "later", thus giving "Later Hanazono Emperor").
Go-Hanazono was the eldest son of imperial prince Fushimi-no-miya Sadafusa (伏見宮貞成親王) (1372 - 1456). His mother was Yukiko (幸子) (1390 - 1448), daughter of Niwata (庭田経有).
His father was the third in the Fushimi-no-miya line and the grandson of the Northern Court Sukō pretender, making him the third cousin of his predecessor Shōkō.
His consort was Ōinomikado (Fujiwara) Nobuko (大炊御門（藤原）信子) who bore him two children:
The previous emperor, Shōkō, had no sons, so the retired emperor Go-Komatsu adopted the future Go-Hanazono, of the house of Fushimi-no-miya, to secure the legacy of the Jimyōin-tō line against the Daikakuji line.
Upon Shōkō's death, Go-Hanazono succeeded him, but Go-Komatsu continued to rule as a retired emperor until his death in 1433.
After that, 30 years of direct imperial rule followed, until his own abdication on August 21, 1464, after which the reign of the retired emperors ceased on its own.
Shogun Yoshimasa Ashikaga, indulging in debauchery, was punished by the emperor.
With eight changes of eras, Go-Hanazono is tied with Go-Daigo for the title of emperor who had the most different eras in a single reign.